How Sino-Indian Relations Transformed : From Past To Present [ Explained With Maps ]

  1. China–India relations, also called Sino-Indian relations or Indo-China relations, refers to the bilateral relationship between the People’s Republic of China (PRC) and the Republic of India.

  2. India was among the first countries to end formal ties with the Republic of China (Taiwan) and recognize the PRC as the legitimate government of Mainland China.

  3. After Independence, Jawaharlal Nehru based his vision of “resurgent Asia” on friendship between the two largest states of Asia; his vision of an internationalist foreign policy governed by the ethics of the Panchsheel, which he initially believed was shared by China.

  4. Nehru was disappointed when it became clear that the two countries had a conflict of interest in Tibet, which had traditionally served as a buffer zone, and where India believed it had inherited special privileges from the British Raj.

  5. India established diplomatic relations with the PRC on 1 January 1950, the second non-communist nation to do so.

  6. The PRC reasserted control over Tibet and to end Lamaism (Tibetan Buddhism) and feudalism, which it did by force of arms in 1950.

  7. With Indian support, Tibetan delegates signed an agreement in May 1951 recognizing PRC sovereignty but guaranteeing that the existing political and social system of Tibet would continue..

  8. In April 1954, India and the PRC signed an eight-year agreement on Tibet that became the Five Principles of Peaceful Coexistence (or Panchsheel). Here, Nehru calculated that India’s best guarantee of security was to establish a psychological buffer zone in place of the lost physical buffer of Tibet.

  9. In 1954, India published new maps that included the Aksai Chin region within the boundaries of India. When India discovered that China built a road through the region, border clashes and Indian protests became more frequent.

  10. In January 1959, PRC premier Zhou Enlai wrote to Nehru, pointing out that no government in China had accepted as legal the McMahon Line, which in the 1914 Simla Convention defined the eastern section of the border between India and Tibet.

  11. Zhou proposed that China relinquish its claim to Arunachal Pradesh in exchange for India’s abandonment of its claim to Aksai Chin. The Indian government, constrained by domestic public opinion, rejected the idea of a settlement.

  12. Consequently, up until 1959, despite border skirmishes, Chinese leaders amicably had assured India that there was no territorial controversy.

  13. The Sino-Indian War , also known as the Sino-Indian Border Conflict, was a war between China and India that occurred in 1962.

  14. A disputed Himalayan border was the main pretext for war, but other issues played a role.

  15. There had been a series of violent border incidents after the 1959 Tibetan uprising, when India had granted asylum to the Dalai Lama.

  16. India initiated a Forward Policy in which it placed outposts along the border, including several north of the McMahon Line, the eastern portion of a Line of Actual Control proclaimed by Chinese Premier Zhou Enlai in 1959.

  17. Unable to reach political accommodation on disputed territory along the 3,225-kilometre-long Himalayan border, the Chinese launched simultaneous offensives in Ladakh and across the McMahon Line on 20 October 1962.

  18. Chinese troops advanced over Indian forces in both theatres, capturing Rezang la in Chushul in the western theatre, as well as Tawang in the eastern theatre.

  19. The war ended when China declared a ceasefire on 20 November 1962, and simultaneously announced its withdrawal from the disputed area. Indian posts and patrols were removed from Aksai Chin, which came under direct Chinese control after the end of the conflict.

  20. The Sino-Indian War was also noted for the non-deployment of the navy or air force by either the Chinese or Indian side.

  21. The Chinese military action has been viewed by the United States as part of the PRC’s policy of making use of aggressive wars to settle its border disputes and to distract both its own population and international opinion from its internal issues.

  22. The non-aligned nations remained mostly uninvolved, and only the United Arab Republic openly supported India.

  23. While Western nations did not view Chinese actions favourably because of fear of the Chinese and competitiveness, Pakistan, which had had a turbulent relationship with India ever since the Indian partition, improved its relations with China after the war.

  24. The aftermath of the war saw sweeping changes in the Indian military to prepare it for similar conflicts in the future, and placed pressure on Indian prime minister Jawaharlal Nehru, who was seen as responsible for failing to anticipate the Chinese attack on India.

  25. India also reported some military conflicts with China after the 1962 war. In late 1967.There were two incidents in which both countries exchanged fire in Sikkim.

  26. On March 2015 India started the 18th round of talks with China over the land boundary issue.

  27. Today India has a stable strategic relationship with China

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