Being Single! The Darkness In My Own Sex (Part 3)

Yesterday I went to meet my close friend, she told me that she wants to be single forever. I did not understand how I should react to this so I just smiled a little and asked if I should gift her a vibrator? probably she didn’t understood what I was talking about -her expression was blank 😛 

I do not know if I should have asked her for that or maybe I was getting her wrong but it was the first thing that came to my mind.. When I came back home I recalled our conversation, every single word that she spoke to support her argument of being single. Was she just saying that because she fears breaking her heart or she actually gave into her physical stirrings or may be because she’s a loner n don’t want anybody to intrude into her life?

I don’t know why is it that when people get to know of a woman’s single status and that she’s not dating anyone and haven’t been involved with a man in the longest time, they immediately think it gives them some sort of a license to ask her about her sex life, almost always adding patronizingly that a woman must have natural physical needs.

I recalled one incident in my office where a married man came to one of my colleague saying that he knew she was lonely and that he was too, when she asked him to back off he replied that his wife wasn’t sexually satisfying and since he assumed they wanted the same things – he was suggesting a ‘discreet’ fling. Does being single mean sexually available and internally frustrated?

I remember that incident clearly and I am afraid to back my friend’s decision, seriously. I think I need a break.

What would you say?

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Happiness is inside us, next to us, in front of us; wishing you a happy new year 2018

Are you happy or grumble about what you want and do not have yet? Are you experiencing your happiness every moment, feeling total and blessed, or simply accusing everyone and everything because you do not have what you want, or say better, what do you think you want?

Let’s take things from the beginning. Happiness is a situation, it is not a thing. Happiness has to do with ‘I am’ and not with ‘I have’. Happiness has nothing to do with how much material you have, how many titles you conquer, how much expensive homes or cars you have. Happiness is true, it is love, it is light, it is acceptance, it is serenity, it is fullness.

You are happy if you know who you are and what you want in life. And this truth automatically brings acceptance of yourself, which is the most important basis for building a healthy personality. In turn, acceptance will bring love. And really happy is the man who loves himself.

When you love yourself, you care for self, you watch yourself. You do not let you fall into the choices of others, you set limits without making emotional rebates.

When you love yourself you grow up. Give time and space to yourself to experience, to experience, to feel, to learn. So your soul fills light, for love and truth illuminate man. And when the soul bathes from the light, it can only feel complete and calm. When you experience real happiness you feel peaceful because the soul has exactly what it takes.

Happiness is an actual reality. It is the gift that everyone owes to himself. It is not difficult to reach and conquer our happiness. Happiness is not in the difficult, the complex, the expensive. Happiness we find in simple, everyday. Many times it is next to us, in our hands, and all we need to do is look better inside and find it.

So this new year let’s leave the baggage of worries behind and visualize in the mirror the reflection of positivity inside, carry the umbrella of faith as shield beside and bid a goodbye to 2017 with a smile.

Drive the car of motivation with keys and start a new journey with control on speed, turn on the GPS of heart to search an address of happiness in 2018 and capture with mind the beautiful memories on path of life.

Credit: ©Priti C

How internet shutdowns impact our civil liberties

We receive this comment few days back “I’m Yaqoob from Jammu and Kashmir. Here everything including internet is blocked/banned, probably because of our social media activities. We kashmire sometimes use social media to upload our victimised stories .but Indian government do not like this, she is afraid of getting exposed in worldwide. Please-please help us …”

And this compel me to write on this sensitive issue..

Imagine this situation. A region of the country is deeply annoyed with the actions of the government. There are plans for widespread and aggressive protests. The government fears that the protests might turn violent. It decides to cut-off the internet access to the entire region for an indefinite period of time, reasoning to preserve the law & order in that region.

Is access to internet is a basic, non-negotiable right, a part of the right to life, and that it cannot simply be left at the mercy of the government? What do you think?

I think if the government really wishes to keep law and order, then it must find other, less drastic ways of doing so, such as increasing security, perhaps a curfew, or even winning the trust of the people and addressing their grievances.

In the 21st century, the Internet has assumed an increasingly important place in our lives. From banking to political speech, and from complex medical procedures to the purchase of basic necessities, important aspects of our economic, social, and cultural life now depend upon the Internet. Many of the fundamental rights guaranteed by our Constitution — the freedom of speech and expression, the freedom of association, the freedom of trade — are exercised in significant part on the Internet. But the growing importance of the Internet in personal life, as well as its growing use to challenge governmental authority, has led to a backlash, where governments attempt to reorient the relationship between the individual and the state in their favour by controlling the Internet.

In India, “Internet shutdown” is one ubiquitous form of control by government. To prevent protests, the government may — and actually does — cut-off Internet access for purposes as comically diverse as preventing violent protests (Kashmir) and cheating in exams (Gujarat).

The government must, by law, subject Internet shutdowns to judicial scrutiny as soon as reasonably possible. And courts must take into account the exceptional character of Internet shutdowns and their impact on core civil liberties before validating them.

The concentration of more power in the hands of the government will only further disempower the individual against the state, and achieve a temporary illusion of security at the cost of a permanent loss of freedom.

 

This article is already published in a renowned newspaper
Courtesy: Gautam Bhatia, Delhi-based lawyer

THE DARKNESS IN MY OWN SEX (PART 2)- It’s High Time To Criminalize MARITAL RAPE

” Sometimes I think what kind of a woman am I? A wife? A whore?.. My husband used to tie my hands to the bedpost, and hit me with a leather belt, asking me to touch his organ. With my tongue. If I stopped, the times I gagged… he’d kick me hard. Saying he was close. His eyes fearful. I was eight months pregnant, when he insisted on doing it from the rear. Videotaping the same. I tried to protest, but he beat me severely. It’s like hearing me howl gave him a great deal of pleasure. I miscarried. Almost bleeding to death. I have been married for eight years. It was an arranged marriage. I was raped on my wedding night. It has never stopped. How can I explain that in the darkness of a woman’s bedroom, she is the most vulnerable. I am always alone. I wanted to die, after my second miscarriage. We have a daughter. What do I tell her? Who is he? … “

Under the Indian Penal Code, marital rape is not covered by the ordinary rape laws and is a form of non-criminal domestic violence. According to IPC Section 375 which says that sexual intercourse or sexual acts by man with his own wife, the wife not being under 15 years of age, is NOT rape; in fact exempts spouses from prosecution except in cases of legal separation. Some cases, however, are in fact covered by the ordinary laws relating to assault and unnatural sex/ sodomy as in the present case, for use of violence to claim sex is clearly not acceptable.

In 2016, A judgement came where it was officially confirmed that Rape laws don’t pertain to Married Couples — Once you’re legally wed, forced sex is no longer a crime.

It was a case in which a woman had alleged she had been drugged, then forced to marry, and then raped — in other words, she hadn’t consented to the marriage or the sex. The Judge said there was no evidence that the accuser had been drugged, but he also said that if the woman’s husband (identified only as Vikash) had forced himself on her, that wouldn’t qualify as rape under Indian law. The official verdict said – “The prosecutrix (the wife) and the accused (Vikash) being legally wedded husband and wife, and the prosecutrix being major, the sexual intercourse between the two, even if forcible, is not rape and no culpability can be fastened upon the accused.

According to a recent report by the United Nations Children’s Fund India, India ranks the highest in the list of countries where adolescent girls are subjected to sexual violence by an intimate partner. The study ironically titled “Hidden in Plain Sight“, says 77 per cent of girls between 15 to 19 years in India have suffered sexual violence at least once in the form of forced sexual intercourse or other forced sexual acts by their husband or partner.

What’s further shocking is that 41 per cent reported physical violence by their mothers/stepmothers while 18 per cent were abused by fathers or stepfathers. Brother and sisters were the perpetrators in 25 per cent cases. Most adolescent girls who are victims of sexual violence also report physical abuse and, in India, that number stands between ten to 20 per cent. The report also says that among married girls who experienced physical violence since age 15, a current or a former partner was cited most often in all of the countries. The proportion is more than 70 per cent in India. Women who were not married were most likely to report physical violence at the hands of family members, friends/acquaintances and teachers.

And now the Union Government submitted a report to the Delhi High Court mentioning that marital rape may ‘destabilise’ the institution of marriage..

Really??

What if rape is not the only kind of sexual violence there is? What if every woman at some point in her life is violated? What if the man attacking her is the one she choses? Or is scared to run away from? What if we tell her to suffer in silence? Saying she must attain Sitahood at all costs? That it is what her womanhood is worth?

The ‘exception in the rape law for marital rape’ has its origin in the historical patriarchal society where a woman was considered as her husband’s property. Various countries around the world have criminalised marital rape including our neighbours like Nepal,
Bhutan, Sri Lanka, etc.

It is important to note that sexual violence within or outside marriage is a gross violation of one’s dignity and it should not ordinarily need a judicial stamp.

The issue is a sensitive one and would need a detailed scrutiny and analysis. The very first step would be to define what constitutes as ‘Marital Rape’, and then further steps may be taken.

Due to a grossly high number of assaults on women of sexual nature, it becomes crucial for the country to take the matter for consideration on an urgent basis.

 

(The story featured in the article is culled from the interview the author @sreemoyeekundu has conducted with the many nameless women of the country during her research.)

 

Loneliness

Loneliness is not what it seems.
One does not feel lonely because one is alone,
but because of a feeling of lack –
a feeling that something is missing.
Loneliness is essentially independent
of how many other humans are around.
It has much more to do with one’s self-esteem –
one’s sense of inherent worth.

 

GST Explained : Understanding The New Generation Tax Regime

What is GST?

The Goods and Services Tax is meant to be a unified indirect tax across the country on
products and services. In the current system in India, tax is levied at each stage separately, by the Centre and the State, at varying rates, on the full value of the goods. But under the Goods and Services Tax system that is set to be introduced, tax will be levied only on the value ADDED at each stage. It is a single tax (collected at multiple points) with a full set-off for taxes paid earlier in the value chain.
Thus, the final consumer will bear only the GST charged by the last dealer in the supply
chain with set-off benefits at all the previous stages.

Why was GST established?

The GST was established to subsume various indirect taxes levied at different levels,
reducing the red-tape, plugging leakages and paving the way for a transparent indirect tax regime.

What are the benefits of implementing the GST?

For business and industry
Easy compliance: A robust and comprehensive IT system is to be the foundation of the GST regime in India. Therefore, all services such as registrations, returns, and payments would be available to the taxpayers online, making compliance easy and transparent.
Uniformity of tax rates and structures: GST will ensure that indirect tax rates and structures are common across the country, thereby increasing certainty and ease of doing business. In other words, GST would make doing business in the country tax-neutral, irrespective of the choice of place of doing business.
Removal of cascading: A system of seamless tax-credits throughout the value-chain, and
across boundaries of States, would ensure that there is minimal cascading of taxes. This
would reduce hidden costs of doing business.
Improved competitiveness: Reduction in transaction costs of doing business would eventually lead to improved competitiveness for the trade and industry.
Gain to manufacturers and exporters: The subsuming of major Central and State taxes in
GST, complete and comprehensive set-off of input goods and services, and phasing out of
Central Sales Tax (CST) would reduce the cost of locally manufactured goods and services.
This will increase the competitiveness of Indian goods and services in the international
market and give boost to Indian exports. The uniformity in tax rates and procedures across the country will also go a long way in reducing the compliance cost.
For Central and State governments
Simple and easy to administer: Multiple indirect taxes at the Central and State levels are
being replaced by GST. Backed with a robust end-to-end IT system, GST would be simpler
and easier to administer than all other indirect taxes of the Centre and State levied so far.
Better controls on leakage: GST will result in better tax compliance due to a robust IT
infrastructure. Due to the seamless transfer of input tax credit from one stage to another in the chain of value addition, there is an in-built mechanism in the design of GST that would incentivize tax compliance by traders.
Higher revenue efficiency: GST is expected to decrease the cost of collection of tax revenues of the Government, and will therefore, lead to higher revenue efficiency.
For the consumer
Single and transparent tax proportionate to the value of goods and services: Due to multiple indirect taxes being levied by the Centre and State, with incomplete or no input tax credits available at progressive stages of value addition, the cost of most goods and services in the country today are laden with many hidden taxes. Under GST, there would be only one tax from the manufacturer to the consumer, leading to transparency  of taxes paid to the final consumer.
Relief in overall tax burden: Because of efficiency gains and prevention of leakages, the
overall tax burden on most commodities will come down, which will benefit consumers.

What are disadvantages of GST?

The main disadvantage is that tax on services is likely to go up. The second disadvantage
as feared by manufacturing States such as Maharashtra, Gujarat and Tamil Nadu, is that
they will lose a major chunk of revenue earned from taxes on manufacturing. Since the tax structure will be uniform in the entire nation, States that traditionally attract investments may now lose some since manufacturers may turn to other States as well.

How will it impact inflation?

The impact of GST on inflation can be assessed only when the government decides the rate at which various goods and services will be taxed. Going by the definition of GST in the Bill, the tax burden on products will come down because only value addition will be taxed. In  the case of services, taxes are likely to go up since both State and Centre will levy tax, while presently only Centre charges tax for services.

What will be the impact of GST on GDP of the country?

According to Nomura, the short term impact of GST could be mixed. It could temporarily
hurt growth owing to an increase in taxes on services, which account for 60% of
India s GDP. It could also drive up headline CPI inflation by 20-70bps in the year of
implementation due to incomplete pass-through of tax savings by firms, while it could also raise general government (Centre + State) tax collection with the central government s share (within the GST tax base) most likely rising and that of the State falling. However, in the long term, the GST will be clearly positive as gains from a more efficient tax system, greater price competitiveness (reduced costs), and the removal of interstate tax barriers should boost growth via higher exports and investments, structurally lower inflation, and higher government (Centre + State) tax revenues, enabling greater general government fiscal consolidation.

How will GST affect the Common Man?

The impact of GST on the prices of goods and services will largely depend on the item in
question. It will also depend upon the respective State governments and their intervention with respect to controlling prices of essential commodities. Milk, for example, which is likely to see a spike in prices after GST is implemented, can still be sold at cheaper rates, if the state government offers a subsidy on it.
Whether the GST will be beneficial for the poor or not only time can tell. Prices of vegetables and fruits are likely to rise under the GST regime and services such as eating at restaurants will get more expensive. What will likely get cheaper are items such as clothes, as cascading taxes at various stages of manufacturing would no longer apply to them.

Is GST going to benefit people below the poverty line?

With respect to people living below the poverty line, while there might not be a direct
impact of GST as such since basic necessities like food are unlikely to attract GST, increased collections of GST with a larger tax base shall provide an impetus to the Government to allocate more money toward social and poverty alleviation programmes. Thus, GST should benefit all sections of the society.
Additionally, GST, being a nationwide tax, could lead to possibly higher inflation in the first few years of its introduction but would gradually increase the overall GDP.

 

What are the international lessons from GST implementation?

As of now, 160 nations have implemented VAT/GST. We have a company in China, which is yet to implement a uniform GST.
According to a Crisil report, when implemented in many countries, GST caused a spike in
inflation with the impact lasting 10-12 months. The duration of the impact on retail sales
varied, with consumer spending growth normalising within 3 months in Japan, Australia
and China, but taking as long as a year in Singapore. Also, most countries witnessed a
pre-GST spending rush. Malaysia, which implemented it in April 2015, saw a spending
rush — but not on big-ticket items. Sales of electronics & telecommunications equipment,
departmental and general stores, jewellery and watches, furniture, and apparel rose. This was reflected in the rise in credit card transactions and rise in narrow money supply, which captures the transactions demand for money. Consumer spending also surged in Australia, Japan, China and Singapore just before GST kicked in.

What are the issues that other countries have faced while implementing
GST?

Countries have faced initial bottlenecks, such as finding the VAT model to be very
complicated on account of huge diversity in application of exemptions. In the European
Union, there was a problem of reduced rates among member states. There have also been challenges pertaining to interpretation. Canada s challenge was the presence of a variety of tax rates under the GST/harmonised sales tax regime. There were post-implementation issues in Malaysia. Canada s British Columbia, after having harmonised its provincial retail sales tax with the GST in July 2010 rolled back to its earlier tax regime in 2013.
Despite these challenges, GST/VAT has emerged as the preferred form of indirect tax
system, being tax neutral, and offering a larger and more stable source of revenue. It is also potentially self-enforcing in nature. Gross domestic production of major economies such as New Zealand, Canada, Singapore, Australia, and so on, have reported annual increases in gross domestic production by 2.43%, 0.87%, 7.02% and 2.57%, respectively.

Would the implementation of GST impact the federal structure?

 

The GST structure proposed for India is synchronised with the constitutional framework of the country, enabling concurrent levy and collection of GST by the Centre and the States. Therefore, considering the constitutional amendments carried out by the government, autonomy of the States is not expected to be impacted by the implementation of GST.

Is the GST Bill a Constitutional Amendment or a Finance
Bill or Tax Bill or Money Bill?

The Indian Constitution enumerates the taxation powers of the Centre and State under List I and List II of the Seventh Schedule. The Centre can pass laws on the heads mentioned under List I such as income tax and the States can pass laws on the heads mentioned in List II such as sales tax. To introduce the GST, which will subsume many of these taxes, hence requires amendment of the Constitution. The Bill that will include the exact form and processes of the GST will be drafted and moved in both Houses after consulting with the States.

Now the Government presented & passed the GST bill as a a Money Bill in Lok Sabha.

What are the differences between VAT and GST?

VAT is Value Added Tax, which is considered the first step towards moving to a GST
regime. VAT is charged on the increase in value of an article at each stage of its production or distribution. This is exactly how GST will be levied on products. However, VAT applies to goods sold and not services, which comes under service tax. GST is applicable for both goods and services, and at a uniform rate.
Also, a host of other indirect taxes are levied at various levels along with VAT. When GST is introduced, all of them will go.

What are the benefits and demerits of GST in comparison to the current
VAT regime?

Principally, GST is going to be a destination-based consumption tax and shall operate on
the premise that value addition shall be taxed and input tax credit can be claimed at each stage of the economic supply chain. If a comparison of GST is done with the current State VAT/CST regime, there are multiple benefits, and some of the key benefits have been stated
below:
• Uniform tax law across the States
• Elimination of tax cascading effect; no tax on tax
• Elimination of the concept of concessional forms (like Form C, Form I, Form H )
• Minimisation of rate classification disputes
• No CST cost to buyers in other States
• No input tax credit reversal in cases of stock transfers from one State to another
• More credits to businesses as compared to now (i.e. a service provider can claim input
GST credit on goods, which isnt allowed today)
• Simpler compliances

Why should there be an SGST and CGST, and not one GST governed
by a single body?

The Indian Constitution has a federal structure that gives the Centre and States powers to
legislate and govern on several subjects. Under this structure, the Centre and States have
been empowered to levy taxes on goods and services under different indirect tax laws. The dual GST that is proposed in India would give equal powers to both the Centre the States to levy GST. This will ensure that the fiscal autonomy of the States and the overall spirit of cooperative federalism are maintained.
Given the fact that a dual GST shall be implemented in India on account of the federal
structure of the Constitution, it is not possible to have a single body administering the levy and collection of GST across the country.

What will happen to various cesses such as Swachh Bharat cess and
Krishi Kalyan cess?

Cesses such as the Swachh Bharat cess and Krishi Kalyan cess, which are in relation to
supply of goods and services, are proposed to be subsumed by the GST. This also emerges
from a reading of the GST Constitutional Amendment Bill passed by both Houses of
Parliament.

What are the taxes that will be eliminated after implementation of
GST?

The following taxes will go:

At the Central level:
• Central Excise Duty
• Additional Excise Duty
• Service Tax
• Additional Customs Duty commonly known as Countervailing Duty, and
• Special Additional Duty of Customs
At the State level:
• State Value Added Tax/Sales Tax
• Entertainment Tax (other than the tax levied by the local bodies), Central Sales Tax
(levied by the Centre and collected by the States)
• Octroi and Entry tax,
• Purchase Tax,
• Luxury tax, and
• Taxes on lottery, betting and gambling.
• Fat tax imposed in Kerala

How will the Centre distribute the collected tax to the states?

The tax collected as CGST goes to the Centre, while SGST goes to States. Only in the case of
inter-State transactions, the Centre will intervene. In such cases, the Centre will levy and
collect the Integrated Goods and Services Tax (IGST).
The inter-State seller would pay IGST to the Central Government on the sale of his goods
after adjusting credit of IGST, CGST and SGST on his purchases (in that order). The
exporting State will transfer to the Centre the credit of SGST used in payment of IGST. The importing dealer will claim credit of IGST while discharging his output tax liability (both CGST and SGST) in his own State. The Centre will transfer to the importing State the credit of IGST used in payment of SGST. Since GST is a destination-based tax, all SGST on the final product will ordinarily accrue to the consuming State.

Why are some States worried about compensation, and why is compensation
needed?

Under the proposed GST regime, the foremost amongst the continuing worries of various
State Governments is the potential loss of revenues. Manufacturing States are most worried regarding loss of revenues, since the current taxation regime which is an origin-based tax will shift to being a destination-based tax. In an origin-based tax system, tax is collected where the supplier of goods is located while in a destination based system, tax in collected where the consumer of a product is located. Thus, States with a greater manufacturing setup fear a big revenue loss on account of movement of goods from their States.
Further, the States currently levy taxes like VAT, entry tax, luxury tax, and so on, on the sale of goods which will get subsumed under GST. Under GST, the States may not have complete autonomy to introduce any new tax at will. Further, any change to tax rates would have to be within a narrow band prescribed by the GST Council and will need to be agreed to with three-fourth majority at the GST Council. On account of the above reasons, many States fear a fall in their revenues and, thus, are seeking to be compensated for such loss.

What is going to be the effect of GST on the States?

States are going to experience a major change in the entire tax administration and levy
structure due to the advent of GST. Introduction of GST will have the following major
effects on the States:
• Movement of GST revenues from the origin States to the destination States.
• Loss of revenue due the abolishment of State levies like VAT, entry tax, luxury tax, and
so on, which will get subsumed under GST.
• Dilution of fiscal autonomy, as the States will not be allowed to introduce any new taxes,
change rates of tax, or give exemptions to any class of goods or services as they will.
• A potential increment in the State revenues on account of collection of GST on services
being received in their States, as also with IGST being applicable on import, and interState
trade, the State portion of which will belong to them.
• States will need to learn taxation of services. It would be particularly relevant for state
authorities to educate themselves with the place of supply rules for services and the
principles governing intra-state and inter-state supply of services. Ensuring no evasion
and dual taxation of service transactions across state boundaries could be a colossal task
for the States.

How one can say that government revenue will increase once GST is
implemented?

The proposed GST structure in India is expected to be broad based. GST is expected to
harmonise and consolidate multiple indirect taxes in India by widening the tax-base and
cutting down exemptions, lowering the exemption thresholds particularly for central excise from Rs 1.5 crore to Rs. 10 lakh, mitigating cascading and double taxation, and promoting voluntary compliances through the lowering of the overall tax burden. GST is expected to tax services which are not being taxed at present and also encourage voluntary compliance, which on the other hand would encourage sectors currently under parallel economy to become part of the mainstream. All these factors are expected to boost tax revenues.

Under the present indirect tax regime, the Central Government levies tax on services at the rate of 15% whereas the Centre and the State Governments together charge taxes (excise duty, value added tax, entry tax, and so on) on goods at a variable range of 6 to 40%.
Under the GST regime, it has been proposed that the GST Council will decide GST rates
with the consensus of the Centre and the States. Presently, there is no clarity on the GST
rates that are likely to be proposed by the GST Council. In this regard, reference can be
made to the report issued by the chief economic advisor (Arvind Subramanian). The report suggests a revenue neutral rate of 18% (the rate at which the Government would continue earning what it has been earning under the existing tax regime), a standard GST rate in the range of 15 to 15.5%, and a lower rate of 12% on certain goods. Further, a higher rate of 40%  has been proposed on certain de-merit goods such as aerated beverages, luxury cars, and so on. Therefore, one can infer that the standard GST rate is likely to be in the range of 16-18% with a lower/higher rate on certain goods.

Given that most of the taxes presently being charged are likely to be subsumed under the
GST, it is being expected that the revenues earned by the governments will increase for the following reasons:
• Exemptions under the GST regime will be substantially reduced to allow free flow of
credits in the supply chain. Presently, numerous goods and services enjoy exemptions,
resulting in lower tax revenues to the exchequer.
• GST will broad base the tax-paying population. It is pertinent to note that even at the
time of the introduction of VAT (value-added tax), tax revenues of the states actually
went up instead of falling. Tax evasions are currently prevalent in the form of fallacious
claim of exemptions or lower duty rates or as attempts to escape the levy of noncreditable taxes. Since GST will have the same rate for almost all the products and
services, with no or least exemptions and free flow of credits, it is likely to encourage
compliance.
• The revenues from services sector are likely to increase. The sector presently attracts a
lower rate of 15%, which is expected to go up.
• Further, the State Governments which were only entitled to earn taxes arising on sale of goods in their respective States will now earn GST on the services being received by the assesses in their States.
• States will be entitled for their portion of SGST on the Integrated GST ( IGST) applicable
on all inter-State trade. This will include IGST on import transactions, which presently
belongs to the Central Government only. Further, a part of CGST and Centre s share of
IGST will also be apportioned to the States.

The Undesired Desire of a Man; The Darkness in My Own Sex (Part 1)

” She went out with children to celebrate 26th birthday of our daughter-in-law..

So ?? you’re not  invited ??

they asked me but I refused ..not interested in all that crap..

why?

why to celebrate her birthday.. she is not special ..she is a girl child.. and the undesired one..

Wait-Wait .. shocked !! Undesired?? For her Parents?

No , for everybody.. who wants a daughter ?.. they come with lots of burden & responsibilities, to trash our hard money.. and  are like heavy loans which keeps on multiplying as they grow and we can never get rid of them anyway.. actually they born to take ,not to give..

they give us joy , care, love , new relations, birth..

oh- come on, we get it all from sons, telling you , 1 son=mansions &  1 daughter=tensions.. “

zodiac_sign__libra_by_yuhon-d38mt66A Man always desire of Woman’s Love, He feels incomplete without her, She sacrifices her everything  just to make him happy and to make him satisfied..

A Woman is His Desire !

But A Daughter?? She is Undesired!

Why? Having a daughter is unfortunate for him.. Why??

What a Girl thinks of herself? Should she be proud of her beauty gifted by God or She would cry over her fate of being undesired for her own family?

Not she always deserve to be loved , to be respected, and to be desired by her parents ?

She is Asking to Everybody

” If we accept that we’re undesired in your world, then why we become desires when grown-up.. Why you never be on one statement of yours? decide what we are exactly for you and  Treat us accordingly forever!! “

What Makes The Difference, BS III to BS IV Vehicles

IN BRIEF
  • No BS III vehicles will be sold in India from 1 April, 2017
  • The Honourable Supreme Court banning the sales and registration of BS III vehicles, So India is all set to move to a BS IV future and it seems that the auto manufacturers will have to pay the price, as there are over 8.2 lakh BS III vehicles still lying unsold in the country.
  • This scramble is happening despite the fact that the date for switching over from BS III vehicles to BS IV vehicles was always known, the original guidelines said that no BS3 vehicles could be ‘manufactured’ in India after 1 April, 2017.
  • And now with the Supreme Court banning the sales and registration too, many manufacturers, specially the two-wheeler manufacturers are left with an unsold stockpile of BS III vehicles. Therefore, many of them are offering heavy discounts on their BS III models, even on the performance bikes.
  • So, how difficult is it to turn a BS III vehicle to BS IV? Is retro fitment possible? And is it value for money? What are options for auto manufacturers? We answer all these and more, including the difference in hardware between BS3 and BS4 here.
For the purpose of easier explanations, we shall divide automobiles in India into four broad based categories.
  1. Two Wheelers
  2. Petrol Powered Passenger Vehicles and SUVs
  3. Diesel Powered Passenger Vehicles and SUVs
  4. Large Commercial Vehicles

Two Wheelers 

Possibly the most affected of the lot in terms of sheer number of unsold units, the two-wheeler segment in India is the one offering the biggest discounts. Some manufacturers have offered up to a stunning 50 percent discount on their bikes and scooters which saw a huge rush in potential customers trying to get what could possibly be a deal of a lifetime!

Changes from BS3 to BS4 for motorcycles are more than just tailpipe emissions. Regulations also (for the first time) restrict evaporation emissions from fuel tanks, which mean a new breather value and additional or changed stamps in the body structure or additional brackets that hold these new systems. This is very difficult to retrofit considering the fact that major design changes might be needed.

Coming to tail pipe emissions, BS4 motorcycles in most cases require larger catalytic converters in terms of flow volumes to eliminate harmful nitrogen based gasses. And although that could be adapted within the exhaust system, most bikes also need a secondary airflow system that adds oxygen (or natural air) to the exhaust stream just before the catalytic convertors. This of course, is a more complex system for which retro fitment is more difficult. Many manufacturers have also resorted to a more complex ECU and ignition control setup that has more than the standard idle map and full throttle map for a better control of the ignition timing which in turn makes for a cleaner burn and thus, less pollution. The byproduct of this is also a more linear acceleration curve and better fuel economy.

 

Petrol Powered Passenger Vehicles and SUVs 

Most petrol powered passenger cars in India have already converted to BS4 years ago. This is mainly because the change from BS3 to BS4 is easiest for internal combustion petrol engines. Most emissions standards are met by the engines themselves without the need for complex post combustion methods to reduce the effect of pollution. The addition of turbocharged smaller capacity engines for example is not for more power or more fun but because it is very easy to attain BS4 emissions levels with these modern engines.

Even naturally aspirated internal combustion engines that are slightly older in terms of technology can meet BS4 with a larger catalytic convertor or two catalytic convertors either in pre-engineered form or retrofitted. Ideally, the catalytic convertors in series is the solution to go for, with one mounted right after combustion occurs (normally on the exhaust manifold itself) and one mounted as a part of the pre muffler package or just before the pre muffler package. The secondary catalytic convertor can also be mounted before or as an in built part of the end can. Similar volume catalytic convertors with a higher concentration of Platinum Group Metals (PGM) can also result in lower emissions if packaging is an issue.

It is easiest to retrofit petrol powered passenger cars as most of them already have an on board diagnostics or OBD 2 port, which controls engine behavior in real time. The OBD 2 port and real time emissions control is mandatory for BS4.

Diesel Powered Passenger Vehicles and SUVs 

Diesel powered passenger vehicles and SUVs are the small portion of the passenger car segment that will get slightly affected by the BS3 to BS4 move as there were still a few manufacturers like Mahindra and Tata Motors manufacturing BS3 vehicles for rural and semi urban markets. These vehicles will now be rendered defunct and in most cases, these were mere variants of BS4 enabled cars that are already available in the market (for example: Mahindra Thar).

The implementation of BS3 had anyways made most manufacturers switch to electrical fuel management and common rail technology for the diesel engines as meeting BS3 with older direct injection technology was quote tough anyways. That said, just like the petrol powered cars, the biggest change in terms of emissions control hardware is a larger volume catalytic convertor or Diesel Oxidation Catalyst (DOC) as it is known specifically for diesel engines. The new BS4 cars will also have to have atleast one NOX sensor in the tail pipe to constantly monitor and a particulate filter to capture particulate matter.

Just as we mentioned earlier, on board diagnostics or OBD 2 ports in passenger diesel powered vehicles will be mandatory to ensure real time engine performance adjustments based on pollutant levels. These are very difficult to incorporate into older technology.

 

Large Commercial Vehicles

While passenger cars and two wheelers can still take some form of retro fitment, it is the commercial vehicle segment that will go through one of the most revolutionary changes in technology and mechanical advancements in recent history with the new BS4 norms. Retro fitment of emissions control units to meet BS4 is almost impossible or very difficult as most systems used are still mechanical and not electronically controlled. The use of on board diagnostics or OBD has been made compulsory not only for passenger cars but also for commercial vehicles which means that all commercial vehicle manufacturers will have to adopt newer ECU based technologies.

The other addition without which commercial vehicles will not be able to meet emissions is the use of an exhaust gas recirculates or EGR. While mechanical EGR’s with upto 60 percent recirculation has been used in the past for various vehicles in both commercial or passenger segments, the newer BS4 regulations will need electronically controlled EGR units with on the fly adjustment capabilities.

In terms of actual hardware post the engine that helps reduce the effect of pollutants, BS3 vehicles today in India do not have any sort of catalyst based system to reduce pollution and have only a noise control muffler that helps reduce audible emissions. The newer trucks and busses, etc will have a mandatory catalytic convertor or Diesel Oxidation Catalyst (DOC) as in the passenger vehicle segment. The DOC will take care of NOX emissions while particulate matter (which includes visible black soot) will be contained with the help of the particulate filers.

Certain higher end trucks and busses will also use another type of post engine exhaust which is more advanced. These include a collection of Diesel Oxidation Catalyst (DOC), Lean Nox Catalyst (LNC) and Lean Nox Trap (LNT) and also a Urea injector called the Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) module. That said, this technology although used very commonly in Europe is still at a very fledgling stage in India as it needs an occasional top-up of Urea along with regular fuel top ups in order to reduce polluting gasses.

To sum up, petrol powered passenger cars will be fastest to adapt followed by two wheelers and diesel passenger cars. Commercial vehicles will have to go though a more engineered approach to meet the BS4 regulations. That said, most vehicles will not just be ‘retrofitted’ with these technologies that we explained earlier to meet BS4 and a more holistic approach to the problem of old unsold stocks will have to be explored.

Roads to the Past

Indian cities tend to look back on their past more selectively. Beyond the major monuments there is little effort to remember the past; the more common memories of recent history are frequently erased. A part of this erasure can be attributed to economic pressures. The cost of maintaining old buildings can be quite high. And when it is weighed against the value of the real estate the buildings occupy it is not difficult to spot which consideration usually wins.

It would not be entirely accurate, though, to blame the disdain for the past entirely on economic considerations. There is also a tendency to impose the present on the past.

This is best seen in the now-routine task of changing the names of roads in our cities. The very fact that the old names are associated with a past we do not endorse is seen as sufficient reason to change them. That this will also erase memories of the period associated with the old names does not seem to matter, and may even be seen as a bonus.

What’s more, the new names are seen as an endorsement of the personality whose name the road adopts, rather than as a memory of the relationship of that person to the city. Take the case of Mahatma Gandhi Road in Bengaluru. Gandhi had two important influences on the city. In 1915 he initiated work on an institute named after his mentor, Gopal Krishna Gokhale, who had passed away earlier that year. In 1927 Gandhi held prayer meetings in another part of the city and, as was his wont, commented extensively on the social and political situation. Yet when a decision to name a road after Mahatma Gandhi was taken, neither of the roads on which Gandhi’s two important encounters with Bengaluru took place was chosen. Instead, South Parade, with its dance halls and bars, was chosen to be named after the Mahatma simply because it was the most elite road in the city.

Turning history into a battlefield in which there can be no agreement ensures we do not learn the lessons the past can teach us. It is not that Indian cities were always as dismissive of their past. Most of them had had to deal with the possibility of conflict between different groups. 

Few would deny that despite there being less cultural diversity in India today than there existed a century ago, there is no dearth of conflict. Yet there is little evidence of willingness to learn from some of the more enlightened approaches that may have succeeded in a city in the course of its history. Most Indian cities prefer to distort their history than learn from it.