About The Third Revolution In Warfare

Killer Robots!! Have you ever heard this term before? Well, Space-X founder Elon Musk and many other AI (Artificial Intelligence) & Robotics leaders warned UN of the dangers of developing lethal autonomous weapons. They said that these weapons “threaten to become the third revolution in warfare“, after the invention of gunpowder and nuclear bombs.

Recently a South Korean University partnered with weapons manufacturer Hanwha Systems  to develop artificial intelligence for weapons. Although the university later clarified it would not be developing “autonomous lethal weapons” but it raises ethical concerns in the application of all technologies including artificial intelligence.

At a time when the United Nations is discussing how to contain the threat posed to international security by autonomous weapons, it is regrettable that a prestigious institution like Kaist (Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology) looks to accelerate the arms race to develop such weapons.

If they develop autonomous weapons, it will be the third revolution in warfare. They will permit war to be fought faster and at a scale greater than ever before. They have that potential to be weapons of terror. Despots and terrorists could use them against innocent people, removing any ethical restraints. It will be like Pandora’s box, if opened will be hard to close.

South Korea already has an army of robots which guard the border with North Korea. Also Samsung SGR-A1 carries a machine gun that can be switched to autonomous mode but is, at present, operated by humans via camera links.

And when it comes to the merits and demerits of AI or a question whether AIs should replace soldiers on the battlefield?

We generally think of casualties in the battlefield and there is a potential for reduced human casualties if AI prospers. Also if a machine that takes action for humans can reduce psychological harm in soldiers.

But when it comes down to ethics, Is it possible to create a moral robot? Who will take the blame when and if AI weaponry makes a fatal mistake – the manufacturer, the developer, or the robot itself? Will AIs prove to be an asset or a liability to their human creators?

These questions will necessitate answers eventually but with experts warning against an impending arms race, the answers had better come through sooner rather than later.

“Fully autonomous weapons, also known as “killer robots,” would be able to select and engage targets without human intervention. Precursors to these weapons, such as armed drones, are being developed and deployed by nations including China, Israel, South Korea, Russia, the United Kingdom and the United States. It is questionable that fully autonomous weapons would be capable of meeting international humanitarian law standards, including the rules of distinction, proportionality, and military necessity, while they would threaten the fundamental right to life and principle of human dignity. Human Rights Watch calls for a preemptive ban on the development, production, and use of fully autonomous weapons. Human Rights Watch is a founding member and serves as global coordinator of the Campaign to Stop Killer Robots.”

 

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Rise Up Against The Injustices

A poor creature was dying in front of me and I remained silent, inactive just because it didn’t had vocal chords to scream in pain or I knew that most invertebrates do not feel pain as they mostly lack nocioception structure which is capable of feeling pain, I didn’t felt the pain.

Disgusting! That was a horrific cruelty

Here is the link check it out

WHATEVER AFFECTS ONE DIRECTLY, AFFECTS ALL INDIRECTLY

All creatures deserve to live their lives free from suffering and exploitation. Let the freedom ring for everyone, guys! for human and otherwise. Please understand that every single being have the ability to suffer in the same way and to the same degree that humans do, they also feel pain and fear whether vertebrates or invertebrates.

Every creature with a will to live has a right to live free from pain and suffering. Get rid of this traditional view that all nonhuman creatures exist solely for human use, only prejudice allows us to deny others the rights that we expect to have for ourselves, whether they’re based on race, gender, sexual orientation, or species, prejudice is morally unacceptable.

Take vital steps to cut thoughtless cruelty to other living creatures out of your life and to educate others around you.

INJUSTICE ANYWHERE IS A THREAT TO JUSTICE EVERYWHERE

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Tarnishing beauty of Nepal

Nepal with its mesmerizing climate and diverse culture is one of the best tourist destinations in South Asia. Pristine rivers, unending chain of mountains makes this place a paradise. However, in recent past, frequent political and non political strike has tarnished the image of the country.

The political uncertainty and chaos that has impeded the development in many aspects. There is political instability as a result of myopic leaders who have been wrangling for power sharing but thanks to the new Constitution, women who were under-represented in the First Past the Post results will get seats in federal and provincial assemblies via Proportional Representation quotas.

Moreover, country reels under acute power outage while it claims that it is second richest in water resources- next to Brazil. The discussion was instrumental in highlighting the factors hindering the overall development of the country.

Recently, The Burmese Army Chief who is accused of masterminding ethnic cleansing on his country’s Rohingya people was in Kathmandu on a four-day visit. The Nepal Army said he was here to study Nepal’s peace process, especially the demobilization of the rebel fighters but several human rights activists have criticised the visit of someone accused to gross human rights violations, and said the timing was not right.

Between all these tussles, foreigners can see true Nepal if they visit the rural areas where local people still follow the century old practice and consider guest as god. In materialistic Kathmandu, such tradition has taken the back seat owing to blatant adoption of negative aspect of western mores, endangering its own invaluable culture. they should keep the invaluable custom and tradition intact to handover it to the upcoming generation.

China-Pakistan-North Korea Nexus

US has come out with a new set of sanctions with the objective of denying access to the US financial system to any country that trades with or finances trade with North Korea.

China has promised both at the UN Security Council and General Assembly to give effect to the sanctions against North Korea. But China has not as yet made any significant attempts to rein in North Korea.

China’s links with North Korea go beyond the standard parameters of global commerce. The most apposite illustration in this regard is the case of DHID, which became a front for the Korea Kwangson Banking Corp, financing North Korea’s weapons proliferation. DHID used layers of obfuscation with a complex network of front companies based in the British Virgin Islands, the Seychelles, England, Wales and Hong Kong, apart from mainland China, the ship changed its name to Victory 3 after UNSC sanctions, though its IMO number remains the same.

The DHID came under the purview of US sanctions in October 2016, but its role has been seamlessly taken over by its subsidiary, the Liaoning Hongxiang trading conglomerate, which is headed by a Chinese national. This conglomerate is North Korea’s largest trading partner and claims to be a bridge between North Korea and the world. Unsurprisingly, the Liaoning Hongxiang Group (LHG) inaugurated the newest China-North Korea shipping route, from Longkou to Nampo, in late September 2015. This route has seen significant traffic despite existing international sanctions against North Korea.

The LHG also has significant connections with Myanmar. The conglomerate’s vice president is a Myanmarese business tycoon TayZa, who has been designated by the US Treasury Department as “an arms and narcotics dealer”. He has extensive interests around Myanmar, especially in the areas of aviation, military equipment, and fuel. He also owns a football club, one of Myanmar’s largest banks, and a company responsible for cargo clearing in the country’s international airports. He is reported to have been instrumental in organizing nuclear contracts with Russia and North Korea.

Given the above backdrop, North Korea is expected to be able to withstand the sanctions, as help from China and Chinese conglomerates is unlikely to be shut down. North Korea has been and will be a strategic asset for China. The Chinese leadership has traditionally felt that a unified Korea with American troops in the Korean peninsula, close to the Chinese border, is a major security concern. The US, on its part, cannot afford to take an excessively belligerent stance with China, which could affect its US $ 650 billion trade with the country, notwithstanding Trump’s claim that “all options are on the table”.

While India is a bystander on this issue, it needs to be on the alert. Pakistan’s links with North Korea are evident, The potential and overwhelming danger it presents cannot be underestimated. Continued caution to prevent any adventurist attempt by the Pakistan military needs to be at the top of India’s agenda.


The North Korea Threat – War Against America

Defence: As good As Attack

A Skills Gap or A Communication Gap ?

“Skills Gap,” The theory that employers can’t fill positions because job seekers lack adequate skills/training for the positions companies are eager to fill. And for highly technical jobs — a coding job for example — I don’t doubt the pervasiveness of that problem.

In my experience, the “Skills Gap” is either overblown or irrelevant. The recent graduates are deterred or intimidated from applying OR applying for the wrong job, by something much simpler: poor communication, in the form of carelessly worded job descriptions.

Securing a position requires us to translate a JOB DESCRIPTION from jargon to real-world language.

Sometimes we don’t understand what the job entails?  many JOB SEEKERS would simply click “NEXT” – and it’s not because they aren’t qualified, it’s because they don’t understand what the job actually is.

If applicants make it past the “job description” hurdle, they may get tripped up by Online Assessments: It’s a technology many large corporations use to quickly whittle 500 applications to 50. Except, it’s akin to being dropped into a game of Minecraft, where applicants don’t have any sense of the rules or objectives!

More often than not, applicants don’t know basic logistical things, such as how long an assessment will take, or what skill is being evaluated…

Applying for a job is always high stakes. But these days, it seems knowing how to game the application system can be even more important than having the skills or temperament for the job.

At Match Beyond, Students may not have resumes packed with internships and office experience, but more often than not, they are leading complicated lives with great success: managing school, a job (or two) and family, they have mastered the art of prioritization and time management – key attributes in any professional work environment.

It should be make sure that these young people don’t forgo a career-track job, with benefits, because of a technical glitch or a misleading job posting…

अमेरिका की अफगानिस्तान नीति और भारत

अमेरिकी राष्ट्रपति डोनाल्ड ट्रंप की हाल में जारी की गई दक्षिण एशिया और अफगानिस्तान की नीति से अफगानिस्तान में स्थायित्व की संभावनाएं जगी हैं। अमेरिकी सरकार की इस नीति में भारत के लिए भी गहरे अर्थ छिपे हुए हैं। गौरतलब है कि अफगानिस्तान में शांति के लिए पिछले 15 वर्षों से अमेरिका प्रयासरत है।अभी तक अफगानिस्तान की समस्या को सुलझाने के लिए अमेरिका ने तालिबान और उसके पोषक पाकिस्तान से बातचीत के जरिए रास्ता बनाने की कोशिश की थी। परन्तु ट्रंप सरकार ने पाकिस्तान के प्रति कड़ा रुख अपनाते हुए उसे आतंकवाद को पनाह न देने की स्पष्ट चेतावनी दे दी है।

अमेरिका की पाकिस्तान के प्रति ऐसी नीति भारत के हित में है। इससे भारत की कश्मीर समस्या में कुछ कमी आएगी। साथ ही अमेरिका चाहता है कि भारत अफगानिस्तान में अपनी भूमिका; खासकर आर्थिक क्षेत्र में बढ़ाए। अमेरिका की ऐसी अभिच्छा अफगानिस्तान में भारत की पूर्व भूमिका से बिल्कुल उलट है। अभी तक अमेरिका यही सोचता था कि भारत और पाकिस्तान की आपसी दुश्मनी अफगानिस्तान समस्या का एक बहुत बड़ा कारण है।

बहरहाल, भारत को ट्रंप की नई नीति का लाभ उठाते हुए अफगान सरकार और वहाँ के लोगों के साथ द्विपक्षीय रिश्ते निभाने के लिए जो स्वतंत्र नीति अपनाई है, उसे जारी रखना चाहिए। अफगानिस्तान के प्रति तीन ठोस धरातल पर भारत अपनी सकारात्मकता जारी रख सकता है-

  • अफगानिस्तान के अनुरोध पर भारत उसे जो आर्थिक मदद दे रहा है, उसमें बढ़ोत्तरी कर दे। सड़क, बांध, बिजली से जुड़ी परियोजनाओं को जारी रखे।
  • सैन्य एवं पुलिस प्रशिक्षण मुहैया कराता रहे।
  • अफगानिस्तान के मामले में ट्रंप के भारत पर विश्वास जताने से पाकिस्तान को निश्चित रूप से बेचैनी होगी। वह चाहेगा कि अफगानिस्तान में अमेरिका का भारत के प्रति दृष्टिकोण पूर्ववत हो जाए। भारत को ऐसा संभव न होने देने के लिए कूटनीतिक स्तर पर तैयारी रखनी होगी।

भारत को संपूर्ण विश्व को एक बार फिर से याद दिलाना होगा कि वह आतंकवाद विरोधी वातावरण बनाने के लिए अपने पड़ोसी देशों के साथ मिलकर काम करने के लिए सदैव प्रतिबद्ध रहा है।

ट्रंप सरकार की अफगान नीति दक्षिण-एशिया की राजनीति में नया मोड़ ला सकती है। परन्तु ट्रंप की कथनी और करनी की सत्यता को जांचने से पूर्व अफगानिस्तान के प्रति अपनी नीति में भारत को कोई ढील न देते हुए भविष्य के दांवपेंचों से जूझने के लिए तैयार रहना चाहिए।

 

Survival of GCC at stake..

As is well known, the current crisis in the Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) was caused by the decision of Saudi Arabia, United Arab Emirates (UAE), Bahrain, and Egypt, followed later by a few others, to cut off diplomatic relations as well as trade and transport links with Qatar. Well-wishers of the GCC, which had escaped the ravages of what started as the Arab Spring in 2011, have reason to be deeply disappointed.

The crisis is getting worse by the day primarily for two reasons. First, Qatar’s adversaries seem determined to punish it whatever be the cost thereof in terms of regional stability, peace, and the suffering caused to people in the GCC and elsewhere. Second, Washington, which alone has the clout to intervene and, if need be, impose a settlement in its own interest, appears to be incapable of coherent and rational action under President Trump who has signalled a policy contradicting that of his own Secretaries of State and Defense. Without indulging in untenable counterfactual thinking, anyone could have seen that had Obama been in the White House, Secretary Kerry would have undertaken shuttle diplomacy and ended the current crisis within days. That such a settlement might have been cosmetic and that the underlying causes and complaints might have remained is a different matter. In diplomacy, one is not always looking for a permanent cure. The first priority is to put out the raging fire.

A major diplomatic error has been committed by whosoever thought of sending an ultimatum. A public ultimatum prevents a settlement since ‘face saving’ becomes more difficult. It seems that it is the US Department of State which first came out publicly asking for a list of complaints in writing. On June 20, the Department’s spokesperson Heather Nauert bluntly questioned the motives of Saudi Arabia and UAE for their boycott of Doha, saying it was “mystified” as the Gulf states had not released their grievances regarding Qatar. But earlier, on June 16, Saudi Foreign Minister Adel al Jubeir had said that a list of ‘demands’ was under preparation.

The fault of the US Department of State is that it failed to figure out that demands written and public can complicate mediation. It should have advised Saudi Arabia not to go public with its concrete demands. Here, it is important to note that Trump, by reducing the State Department’s budget, has virtually decimated it. The Secretary of State lacks senior aides with professional experience to advise him.

The following is an unofficial translation of the demands put out by Al Jazeera:

    1. List of demands by Saudi Arabia, other Arab nations

    2. Scale down diplomatic ties with Iran and close the Iranian diplomatic missions in Qatar, expel members of Iran’s Revolutionary Guard and cut off military and intelligence cooperation with Iran. Trade and commerce with Iran must comply with US and international sanctions in a manner that does not jeopardize the security of the GCC.
    3. Immediately shut down the Turkish military base, which is currently under construction, and halt military cooperation with Turkey inside of Qatar.

This is counter revolution 2.0. This is the second phase of the attack on the Arab Spring and what’s left of it, which is very little.

  1. Sever ties to all “terrorist, sectarian and ideological organizations,” specifically the Muslim Brotherhood, ISIL, Al Qaeda, Fateh al-Sham (formerly known as the Nusra Front) and Lebanon’s Hezbollah. Formally declare these entities as terror groups as per the list announced by Saudi Arabia, Bahrain, UAE and Egypt, and concur with all future updates of this list.
  2. Stop all means of funding for individuals, groups or organisations that have been designated as terrorists by Saudi Arabia, UAE, Egypt, Bahrain, US, and other countries.
  3. Hand over “terrorist figures”, fugitives and wanted individuals from Saudi Arabia, UAE, Egypt and Bahrain to their countries of origin. Freeze their assets, and provide any desired information about their residency, movements and finances.
  4. Shut down Al Jazeera and its affiliate stations.
  5. End interference in sovereign countries’ internal affairs. Stop granting citizenship to wanted nationals from Saudi Arabia, UAE, Egypt and Bahrain. Revoke Qatari citizenship for nationals where such citizenship violates those countries’ laws.
  6. Pay reparations and compensation for loss of life and other financial losses caused by Qatar’s policies in recent years. The sum will be determined in coordination with Qatar.
  7. Align Qatar’s military, political, social and economic policies with other Gulf and Arab countries as per the 2014 agreement reached with Saudi Arabia.
  8. Cease contact with the political opposition in Saudi Arabia, UAE, Egypt and Bahrain. Hand over files detailing Qatar’s prior contact with and support for opposition groups, and submit details of their personal information and the support Qatar has provided them.
  9. Shut down all news outlets funded directly and indirectly by Qatar, including Arabi21, Rassd, Al Araby Al Jadeed, Mekameleen and Middle East Eye, etc.
  10. Agree to all the demands within 10 days of the list being submitted to Qatar, or the list will become invalid.
  11. Consent to monthly compliance audits in the first year after agreeing to the demands, followed by quarterly audits in the second year, and annual audits in the following 10 years.

Upon reading the list, it is difficult not to recall another ultimatum, couched in equally arrogant style, delivered way back in 1914 by the Austro-Hungarian Empire to Serbia. That ultimatum was couched in a language calculated to ensure rejection. Three days after the deadline of July 25 1914, Austria-Hungary declared war on Serbia triggering the First World War.

Fortunately, we need not fear any immediate outbreak of hostilities between Saudi Arabia and Qatar. UAE has made it clear that there is no scope for discussion and that if Qatar does not do what it is asked to do there would be a ‘parting of ways’.

What are the implications of the words “parting of ways”? The GCC will get weaker with Qatar out; and Oman and Kuwait will be offended that their mediation efforts were spurned. The Turkish military base in Qatar will get fortified. Qatar and Iran will get closer. Iran’s regional clout will increase.

There is another potential peril. If Iran’s clout increases, how will Saudi Arabia’s new Crown Prince Mohammad bin Salman respond? He took the lead in starting Operation Decisive Storm by invading Yemen in March 2015. It has been far from decisive and Riyadh is chasing a mirage of military victory at an atrocious cost in human lives and human misery.

What complicates the situation further is the unpredictable President Trump. He wants to undo as much of the Obama legacy as possible and is keen to cancel the nuclear deal with Iran. He says that Iran is the source of international terrorism. The troubling question is whether, unwittingly or not, the US President and the Saudi Crown Prince will start a war against Iran and set fire to the rather inflammable region?
Barbara Tuchman in her seminal book The March of Folly wrote:

A phenomenon noticeable throughout history regardless of place or period is the pursuit by governments of policies contrary to their own interests. Mankind, it seems, makes a poorer performance of government than of almost any other human activity. In this sphere, wisdom, which may be defined as the exercise of judgment acting on experience, common sense and available information, is less operative and more frustrated than it should be. Why do holders of high office so often act contrary to the way reason points and enlightened self-interest suggests? Why does intelligent mental process seem so often not to function?”

Let us pray and hope for good sense to prevail. It is unrealistic and rather naïve to expect Qatar to surrender. Any attempt at engineering a coup in Qatar is unlikely to succeed. It is not beyond diplomacy to work out a face-saving formula and end the present crisis after which the GCC can work it out among themselves over a period of time on the basis of a discreet and unpublicized give-and-take. The demand for the shutting down of Al Jazeera is not getting much approbation internationally, to put it mildly.

Egypt’s involvement has only made finding a solution more difficult. This crisis is best resolved within the GCC for which Kuwait and Oman have exerted themselves. If that does not work out, Washington should discharge its responsibilities as early as possible. The fire brigade does not wait for the fire to spread before initiating action.

About The Fastest Growing Currency : Bitcoin

Bitcoin is a word most of us have heard somewhere or the other. However, most of us have only a minuscule knowledge about it. Through this article, I would like to throw some light on this latest revolution.

ABOUT BITCOIN
Bitcoin is a crypto currency. Simply put, it is a digital form of money. It was designed by Satoshi Nakamoto. Interestingly, no one knows whether Satoshi Nakamoto is a real person or a group of programmers using this pseudonym.

HOW BITCOIN WORKS

Bitcoin is different from the app based wallets that we are used to, like Paytm and Freecharge. While these apps use actual currency for carrying out transactions, Bitcoin is the currency through which we can transact. Bitcoin itself is a store of value.

To understand this, we first need to know the history of our current system of currency.
Remember the olden days, when there was no money. People used barter system for carrying out transactions. But doing transactions in barter system was cumbersome. There arose a need to have a common denominator which could be used for the simple act of buying and selling. This lead to the invention of money. First it took the form of any and every item which was perceived as precious- shells, precious stones, metals, even animal dung in certain places.
With the advent of civilisations, there arose a need to have a standardised denominator which could be used for trade throughout the empire. First coins were minted. Coins prevailed during the dark ages. But as civilisations grew, demand for currency grew too.
Soon demand for coins-far outstriped its supply. There just wasn’t enough metal to keep up with the supply. The solution- Notes were conceived. And today, we have a mixture of coins and notes as the drivers of world economy.

IMPORTANCE OF BITCOIN

People have faith in their currency. But these coins and notes are not true money. They are merely representative money. If you have a 2000 rupees note, it doesn’t mean you have 2000 rupees. What you have rather, is a promise by the government of the day, that they will pay you 2000 rupees worth of true currency (in most cases Gold) whenever you demand it.
If you are able to understand this, you will surely understand what a bitcoin is. Bitcoin is in essence that Gold, figuratively. It holds value by itself. It does not derive its value from any source.
Also, it does away with major flaws of Gold as a store of value. It is infinitely divisible (8 decimal places normally, more with consensus of the network).
It is a decentralised currency. This is a very big statement. It means that no one has the right to create bitcoins. Our paper currency decisions are taken by bankers and governments, but in case of bitcoins, there is a fixed supply limited at 21 million. Moreover, these are not just there. These have to mined.
The mining process involves compiling recent transactions into blocks and trying to solve a computationally difficult puzzle. The first participant who solves the puzzle gets to place the next block on the block chain and claim the rewards. The rewards incentivize mining and include both the transaction fees (paid to the miner in the form of Bitcoin) as well as the newly released Bitcoin.

More about Blockchain

BITCOIN SOURCES

What particularly caught my attention is the investment opportunity in Bitcoins. Past reports have shown a 30,000 times rise in the price of bitcoins since its inception. In fact, in the short term, its price has risen astronomically. Over the past one year, it has increased almost four fold from less than $500 to $2072 (21-05-2017).
Rather than only speculation, this increase is also based on one of the most fundamental law of Economics- the law of Demand and Supply.
There will only be 21 million bitcoins in existence at any point of time- neither one less, nor one more. And when demand is not met with supply, the prices are bound to increase.
Many well known analysts have bet that the price of one bitcoin can easily touch $100,000. Some opportunists claim the amount to be $500,000. As a CA student, it wouldn’t hurt me if I were to assume it to rise to just $3000, for that would roughly translate to a 33.33% profit.
Just FYI- @$100,000 – profit would be 4900%
and @$500,000 – profit would be a whopping 24,900%.

BENEFITS OF USING BITCOIN
The universe prefers balance. The same applies to Bitcoins too. Till now, you just read about the bright side of bitcoins. You were only shown the rosy picture. But now prepare yourself for the anticlimax.
Most of the exchanges which allow trading of bitcoins charge a certain percent as fees. It can vary from 0.3% to as high as 10%.
Secondly, these exchanges are not always safe. Classic example of this is Mt.Gox- the $460 million disaster of bitcoins. The underlying blockchain which powers bitcoins transactions cannot be hacked but the exchanges can be hacked into.
Thirdly, many illegal activities and terrorist fundings are done through bitcoins. The Ransomware is most recent example of how hackers can use this technology and yet remain incognito.

CONCLUSION

Bitcoin is the technology of future. It has the potential to overthrow all the existing currencies of the world. Transparency and decentralization are its forte. Just imagine a world where power to create money is not in the hands of a few select individuals but can be mined by anyone who has the required hardware and software.
Truly, a revolution has begun. Not the conventional revolution but one which has the potential to disrupt the power balance of the world without even firing a single bullet!

A KILL SWITCH to neutralize Ransomware attacks

Recently the computer servers of many companies and organisations in Europe, United States of America (USA), Ukraine, and  Russia were paralysed by a ransomware cyber-attack dubbed as “Petya”, A mass scale cyber attack.

All the affected computers displayed a ransom note in which the attackers demanded US$ 300 in bitcoin currency as a ransom. Most of the damage caused by the Petya ransomware was on Ukrainian systems, This has led to Ukraine blaming the Russian security services for the attack. But there are evidence that Russia’s largest oil conglomerate ROSNEFT was also hit by Petya.

This attack came a month after two other major ransomware attacks. One of these was the “Wannacry” ransomware cyber-attack, The other was the “Erebus” ransomware attack where a webhosting organization “Nayana” payed $1.5 million (397.6 bitcoin) as ransom to retrieve the data of its customers.

Now the question arises, What is Ransomware? 

Ransomware is a malware that prevents the user from accessing the system. It does so either by encrypting the files (Crypto-ransomware) or by locking the system’s screen and thus denying access to the device itself (Locker-ransomware). Ransomware was deployed as a tool for cyber-attack for the first time in 1989 when the AIDS trojan was released through snail mail. Once an infected machine booted 90 times, the malware would begin hiding directories and encrypt filenames on the “C:” drive. Once completed, the target would be asked to renew their license by contacting a random corporation. Upon contacting, they would then be instructed to send the payment to a post office located in Panama. Then disk labelled “AIDSOUT” that contained the tools for system restoration was released. The type of cryptography used by the attacker was symmetric cryptography, hence computer experts who analysed the malware were able to easily reverse it.

In 2005, a new ransomware called “Gpcode” was developed but its weak cryptographic algorithm meant it also could be decrypted easily. From 2009 until early 2013, locker ransomware was the most commonly deployed tool to extort money.

But these attacks became less successful as people started becoming aware of malwares and security solution companies started strengthening systems using tools that could shunt the effects of locker ransomware.

This forced cyber criminals into developing more sophisticated malware, which eventually resulted in the crypto ransomware. Unlike locker ransomware attackers, crypto ransomware attackers are generally upfront with their demands and intentions. An extortion message stating that the data would be given back upon payment of a ransom amount is displayed on the screen.

Mostly the target computer systems for crypto ransomware attacks have been those of Microsoft and Linux.  Although Microsoft Windows issued an emergency patch to protect devices using the Windows operating system, the attack was halted after the accidental discovery of a kill switch in the ransomware’s code and unlike Microsoft, there is a difficulty in finding a kill switch in Linux operating system.

Petya used the same exploits as Wannacry, but the difference between the two is that Petya does not have an in-built kill switch.

However, a “vaccine” has been found for Petya, Windows users can create a read-only file called ‘perfc’ in the “Windows” folder inside “C:” drive, which will stop Petya from even infecting the computer.

Most attacks prior to Petya were carried out by criminals for financial gain, but some characteristics of the Petya malware have led to doubts as to whether the culprits are criminals or state actors. As the attackers who deployed Petya asked for less than $10,000 in bitcoin (roughly 3.7 bitcoin). These numbers are meagre for a ransomware attack carried out on such a large scale given that, last year alone, ransomware attackers pocketed $100 billion.

Whoever might have been behind the attacks, their intentions become evident with time. Ransomware attacks have started targeting both governmental and non-governmental critical infrastructure agencies such as banks, airports, power grids, telecom networks, etc. This calls not just for more user awareness on the micro level but for collective cyber security mechanisms at a global level.

We have to take the threat of ransomware seriously and do something about it before it hits our data.

Some easy steps to protect your data from ransomware attacks-

  1. Don’t store important data only on your PC.
  2. Have 2 backups of your data: on an external hard drive and in the cloud – Dropbox/Google Drive/etc.
  3. The Dropbox/Google Drive/OneDrive/etc. application on your computer is not turned on by default. Only open them once a day, to sync your data, and close them once this is done.
  4. Your operating system and the software you use is up to date, including the latest security updates.
  5. For daily use, You don’t use an administrator account on your computer but a guest account with limited privileges.
  6. Should turned off macros in the Microsoft Office suite – Word, Excel, PowerPoint, etc.
    In the browser
  7. Should remove the following plugins from your browsers: Adobe Flash, Adobe Reader, Java and Silverlight. If you absolutely have to use them, set the browser to ask you if you want to activate these plugins when needed.
  8. Should adjuste your browser’s security and privacy settings for increased protection.
  9. Use an ad-blocker to avoid the threat of potentially malicious ads.
  10. Never open spam emails or emails from unknown senders.
  11. Never download attachments from spam emails or suspicious emails.
  12. Never click links in spam emails or suspicious emails.
  13. Use a reliable, paid antivirus product that includes an automatic update module and a real-time scanner.

 

 

Involvement Of Youth In Crimes

These days the news of thief, burglary and murders have increased but what is more threatening is that average age of criminals are decreasing day by day. Many reports suggest an increase in involvement of youth in crimes and this phenomenon has reached an alarming level.

Many experts are of view that unemployment is the foremost cause of increased crime rate among youth. Many young graduates restore to looting and stealing of valuable items to meet their daily money needs. Lack of jobs are a great cause of frustration among young people. A study has confirmed that at-least 60% of young criminals are unemployed.

Deteriorating family values and condition is another reason for high rates of teenage crime. There is a famous quote “We Are What We See”. Family relationships are getting worse day-by-day and teenagers are subject to parental fighting and domestic violence which in turn give rise to Juvenile violence. With lack of parental supervision, the moral and emotional condition of children and youth has deteriorated.

As a society we can do lot more things to remedy this situation. There is need for more policies and schemes to provide employment to young individuals. More employment opportunities will create way to financial and mental stability thus resulting in lesser number of individuals resort to criminal activities.

Parents must find ways to spend more time with our children. Take out family time from the busy office hours to have a healthy discussion time with their children to know whats going in their mind and life. Parents should be supportive and loving towards their young ones.

More awareness programs should come up to highlight the importance of education in one’s life. Especially higher education can provide more opportunities to youngsters thus reducing the chances of them involving in crime.

We, as a society are only responsible for this phenomenon and with restoring to appropriate steps like creating more job opportunities, family-friendly policies in work, lowering cost of living and building stronger marriages, we can bring the crime rate among young to a much lower level. After all children are our future.

Courtesy: PTE Academy

Russia is a all weather friend of India but America can not be a trusted friend

Russia is a country with which India has had a strategic relationship for decades. America is a place where Indians migrate to for a better lifestyle. That is how Indians view the world’s two leading powers. 

India’s PM’s  recent visit to America will not change that reality, and those speculating about dramatic changes in India’s foreign policy are either fools or amateurs – or both.

Many US presidents have visited India. Likewise, Indian prime ministers have visited America. But the dynamics of the India-US relationship hasn’t changed much. And why would it? The US is the leader of the western world whose prosperity largely rests on the domination of the rest of the world. India, on the other hand, is a member of the BRICS (Brazil, Russia, India, China and South Africa) grouping that aims to end such dominance and exploitation.

India cannot afford to sacrifice the current military cop-operation with Russia. In material technologies and strategic raw materials inheritance, Russian strength is well acknowledged, Russia is far better source for easier technology transfer than what India can ever hope from USA. India will need Russian support, be it on Kashmir or other matters at the UNSC, if India radically sways away from Russia, Moscow could anytime open up Pakistan military aid option.

Russia has always been friendly to India even during Soviet times when Uncle Sam looked the other way supporting Pakistan dictatorship against India. Any India connivance with a pro-America military alliance will cost us blood and other economic problems.

If India will have to follow USA’s policy of sanctions on Iran then India’s friendship with Iran and Afghan would get strained and would result in decrease in supply of oil from Iran and it will also make hostile situations between India and Muslim countries. On the other hand, Russia supports both, Iran and Afghan.

Russia’s game in the world is open. Nonetheless, it does not foreclose India’s military cooperation with democratic forces in Asia vis-à-vis a potential Chinese power aggression. India needs to culture Russian relationship deeper so that it works as an antidote to any possible Sino-Pak aggression on India. American help in such a situation would mean confrontation, a Russian help peaceful compromise. If both China and Pakistan were to gang-up on India, the US, in order not to risk a nuclear war, will stay neutral. Russia, on the other hand, would provide intermediary help, because Russia has a certain strategic leverage on China. China needs Russia’s strategic alliance for SCO (Shanghai Cooperation Organization) to succeed. The SCO is a Eurasian Silk Road, which in the long run expectedly change the entire economic landscape of Eurasian continent, guaranteeing economic future of all involved. Why should India forego a chance for that reality by entering into U.S.–tailored Asian defense alliance principally designed to torpedo such developments to keep up U.S. predominance.

Moreover, USA is one of the most self-centric country in the world. History is witness that USA is not a reliable partner in several areas, politics, military and hardware spare parts. India will be optioned to buy whole-system units at high prices, probably with loans from US Banks to get India mortgaged to the US as a permanent financial slave. Whenever and wherever US helped, it made sure it got something solid in return.

Russia is a much more reliable partner as it has helped India on several occasions in many fields, politics, military, business, etc. Let it be the 1971 War with Pakistan or Nuclear tests or many other fields, it was Russia and former Soviet Union which stood by India and helped it to come over hard times. India will have to choose its friends and foes carefully in order to succeed in this modern world.

 

 

French Presidential Elections and the Busting of the Right Wing Myth

handshake2

France’s presidential elections viz. the electing of Emmanuel Macron’ is being touted as the saviour of the liberal democratic tradition, and the buster of the recently formulated myth. The myth that the right wing ideology has been sweeping the globe with the rise of the extremists. 

To the people unaware of the news, Emmanuel Macron became France’s youngest president, and it’s youngest head of the state after Napolean Bonaparte, by defeating Marine Le Pen’s Front National.

Macron’s election campaign was an interesting take on the issue of right and the left wing, wherein, he portrayed himself and his party as neither left nor right, a liberal who was not a socialist. Unlike his political predecessors and his political opponent who thrived under the veil of fascism and conservatism, Macron transcended what is seen as a political tiff between left and the right wing inter alia the neo-liberals and the conservatives.

The devastating defeat of his opposition is the proof enough that the far right tide sweeping the world has been nothing more than an illusion created and generated by the corporal electoral systems rather than being a mass phenomenon. USA’s president Donal Trump won fewer votes than Hillary Clinton, yet became the head of the state by exploiting the political loophole in the country’s electoral system. In India, Narendra Modi became the Prime Minister by exploiting the dissatisfaction amongst the masses against the existing Indian National Congress, and by riding on the wave of development rather than the people’s right wing ideology. In Holland Geert Wilder’s anti-muslim and anti-immigrant campaign disintegrated against the proportional representation system.

Surprisingly in France (positive emphasis), the voters who supported the left or the right wing decided to transfer their preferences to Macron, who proclaimed himself as a neutral person unlike the candidates in the U.S.A., India, and U.K.

Although, the liberal democratic tradition has a long way to go as it can be seen from the clash of the head(s) of the two oldest democracies in the world, for every country is suffering from the dilemma of nationalism which rides on imaginary greatness purported to unify the sect of masses. Till then the myth, as of now, stands busted.

-by Boringbug


B

Boringbug is a blogger, a sketch artist by hobby, and a lawyer.  His blog Boringbug is a part reflection of his ideas, experiences, dialogues, thoughts, and opinions. It can be reached at boringbug.wordpress.com or at www.boringbug.com.

 

The North Korea Threat – War Against America

IN BRIEF
North Korea is a “small country, far-away, about which we know little,” to paraphrase a fateful comment in defense of appeasement from the 1938 crisis over Czechoslovakia. But there is one thing every American needs to know about far-away North Korea: its rulers are on a methodical and relentless quest for the capability to hit America with nuclear weapons.
The nuclear campaign that North Korea is planning against the United States is one it intends to win. It is formally known as the Democratic People’s Republic of Korea, or DPRK.

Washington is badly unprepared to meet this threat, because too many of her leaders do not understand the Pyongyang game-plan.

The Trump administration needs to do something different.

This would consist mainly, though not entirely, of military measures. Restoring badly eroded U.S. military capabilities—naval, air, ground forces and an aged strategic arsenal– is essential.

Likewise more and better missile defense: the Terminal High Altitude Area Defense (THAAD) systems against ballistic missiles that the U.S. has offered  South Korea and Japan is a good step, and so is moving forward in earnest on missile defense for the USA.

The United Nations has already gotten a comprehensive report on North Korea’s grisly human rights record from its Commission of Inquiry on the situation in the DPRK: let governments of conscience now seek international criminal accountability for North Korea’s leadership.
Then there is the China question. It is by no means impossible for America and her allies to pressure the DPRK if China does not cooperate. That said: it is time for Beijing to pay a penalty for its support for the most odious regime on the planet today.
Many in the West talk of “isolating” North Korea as if this were an objective in its own right. But a serious DPRK threat reduction strategy would not do so. The regime is deathly afraid of what it terms “ideological and cultural poisoning.”
This brings us to the last agenda item: preparing for a successful reunification in a post-DPRK peninsula.
The Kim regime is the North Korean nuclear threat.  That threat will not end until the DPRK disappears.

North Korean missile range

Defence: As good As Attack

 

It is said that to attack is the best defence. However, when everyone will attack then it is for sure that no one will survive.  The world has become more turbulent and unstable in 21st century. With some rogue nations such as Pakistan and North Korea acquiring nuclear capabilities made the world a dangerous place to be in. Everyone knows how dangerous a nuclear bomb could be. Developing a weapon of mass destruction was easy, yet to have a defence from this danger is elusive dream.

North Korea is in limelight since a year or so for all bad reasons. Its ruler Kim Jong Un is psychopath and he is relentless in pursuing his objective. Since he acquired the leadership position DPRK after the demise of his father, he has increased the assertiveness and has conducted several missile tests since then including ballistic missiles and nuclear tests.

The differences, rivalry and hostility between North Korea and South Korea are well known fact. North Korea being more assertive, has put pressure on South Korea and Japan, both are formal ally to US, to be prepared for any of situation of misadventure by North.

US has deployed THAAD (Terminally High Altitude Area Defence), an anti-ballistic missile technology, in South Korea in a situation when the tension is simmering between the two neighbours. North Korea, China and to some extent Russia has criticized this move of the US.  However US said that it threat to South Korea from North, an ally of US and every nation has the right to protect it from external aggression.

What is THAAD?

THAAD is also a weapon, but for defence and not for attack. It is an anti- Ballistic missile defence system developed in US in 90s by Lockheed Martin. It detects, tracks and destroy the incoming warheads from the hostile nation.

How it works?

  • It consists of a radar system, multiple truck mounted launchers and each launcher consists eight interceptors that are similar in nature as that of missiles.
  • Radar detects the target.
  • Interceptor missiles are fired from the truck mounted launcher.
  • These interceptors do not contain any explosive material with it; rather it hits the target with tremendous velocity. The Kinetic energy generated with the velocity is huge and when it collides with the incoming warhead it destroys it in the air.
  • The reason of not containing any explosive in the interceptor and to rely on kinetic energy is simple. Since it doesn’t contain explosives, so it reduces the detonating impact of nuclear warheads.

Missile defence

India in Missile Defence System

Till now only five countries have developed Missile Defence System and they are United States, Russia, France, India and Israel. India also hold the prestige of being only the fourth country which have anti ballistic missile defence system, which China is still dreaming. However India also purchased Russian made S-400 missile defence system, which increases the its defence capability vis-a-vis Pakistan and China.

MDS

Hope it will give some insight about Missile Defence Technology. Thank You!

via Defence: as good as Attack — the ETERNAL tryst

THE ART OF DECEPTION: THE RICH V/S THE POOR DEBATE

8-men-own-the-same-weath-as-3-6-billion-people
Source: Oxfam

 

A report by Oxfam reads that the 8 richest people in the world owned approximately 50% of the word’s wealth. Its report “An economy for the 99%” states that “New estimates show that just eight men own the same wealth as the poorest half of the world. As growth benefits the richest, the rest of society – especially the poorest – suffers. The very design of our economies and the principles of our economics have taken us to this extreme, unsustainable and unjust point.

I couldn’t help but wonder as to how could that be possible? Was it because of their hard work alone that they became this rich? Or was it because of their skills alone that they accumulated so much wealth?

The answer to this lies in the historical development of the nations. The accumulation of wealth started with the growth of mercantile capitalism in Europe. It reached its epitome with the massive exploitation of labourers. The communist and socialist ideologies initially were the fight against such exploitation and thereafter the followers of these ideologies waged a war against capitalism. Resultantly nations took up ownership of the natural resources lying within their territories, which led to the rise of the concept of redistribution of resources.

The USA countered communism, which led to a cold war between it and USSR. Despite that, many nations accepted communism as a mean of governance resulting in the rise of welfare states. This brought the philosophy of equality and equity into the picture, with the nations aiming for equal distribution of resources. With the collapse of USSR (1991) the myth of invincibility of communism got dissipated. This decline of communism re-energized capitalism, further encouraging the accumulation of wealth. This led to the extreme disproportionate distribution of wealth.

Excessive accumulation was initially termed as immoral, but in present times such accumulation is attributed to the skill and intelligence of the person accumulating it. Rightly so. This has led to the idealisation of a wealthy person as a smart, intelligent person capable of making money.

In reality, including a scientific approach, it is not possible to accumulate such enormous wealth in a single lifetime. Then how did these 1% excessively rich people get their brain, which the other 99% did not own? If intelligence was the source of wealth accumulation then clearly these people must have had a higher functioning brain (biology anyone).

This level of inequality cannot be described in scientific terms. The level of inequality can be judged from the fact that the rich do not have time to enjoy their prosperity whereas the poor has ample of time but no prosperity.

Though the prosperity of these 8 people has successfully convinced the society that this is a sheer result of hard work and proper planning, which indeed is not entirely true.

– by Boringbug


B

Boringbug is a blogger, a sketch artist by hobby, and a lawyer.  His blog Boringbug is a part reflection of his ideas, experiences, dialogues, thoughts, and opinions. It can be reached at boringbug.wordpress.com or at www.boringbug.com.

 

 

SOUTH SUDAN IS FIGHTING AGAINST FAMINE

2017-04-07-1491567749-456524-sudan2.JPG

Famine is the biggest single crisis facing our planet right now. Across East Africa, 16 million people face starvation. Men, women and children are dying, every day. It’s bigger than any food shortage we’ve ever seen before. It’s so vast a problem that it’s almost hard to know how to tackle it.

South Sudan’s famine has conflict at its very heart. A bitter civil war that’s raged since 2013 sends deadly ripples across the country. I walked around a village, once a thriving community with homes, a school, a soul. But it had been attacked, the people were chased away, and their crops withered and died. That’s where the hunger comes from. If Continue reading “SOUTH SUDAN IS FIGHTING AGAINST FAMINE”

The Central Asia Politics Over Silk Road

It wasn’t until the second century BC that ancient China arguably discovered the true potential of Central Asia’s geostrategic golden ticket. As the then-reigning Han Dynasty set out to formally establish a network of trade routes crisscrossing the region, later christened as the Silk Road, it realized that the Eurasian gateway was the perfect conduit to carry its political, economic, and cultural influence to the eastern frontiers of the Roman Empire, the present day Middle East and South Asia. Combined with marine routes of the time, the Silk Road not only became an important passage for subsequent Chinese rulers to trade in spices, silk, and slaves but also helped them exchange news ideas in science, arts, religion, literature, and crafts.

Almost 700 years after the decline of the ancient trade network, China, in its modern avatar as the world’s second largest economy, is aspiring to replicate that old glory and influence through a revival of its historical Silk Road. And once again it has turned to its old neighbors and allies in Central Asia to capitalize on the region’s geostrategic advantage. The new reincarnation, known as the Silk Road Economic Belt or SREB, is China’s prodigiously bold economic ambition to connect with potentially 40 countries across Europe, Asia, and Africa. The vast economic corridors and infrastructural Continue reading “The Central Asia Politics Over Silk Road”

The States and their Gun obsession

Image gun-peace

The States and their law enforcement are never complete without the usage of weaponries. With the passage of time, the usage of a gun has become an intricate part of the state system. This can be perceived from the distribution of gun licenses to the civilians in the name of self-defence.

Unfortunately, usage of any kind of weaponry whether lethal or non-lethal results into damage which cannot be undone. Irrespective of any innovation in the usage of guns to bring down the number of casualties- lethal or non-lethal –is not what we need today. For us, indeed the entire world, a gun has become a powerful symbol of the state’s brutality, and dressing it up and sending it packed under the wrap of a peace treaty is no solution to the alienation that afflicts the large population of a society.

What the present times urgently needs is an innovative political strategy to reach out to people of all kinds, instead of warning out the dissenting voices at gun points. Labelling a big section of population and/or branding them as terrorists, anti-nationals etc. is certainly not in any nation’s interest, even if they voice a dissenting opinion. Nor is using of guns or force to disperse such civilians. This is what a true democracy stands for.


Boringbug is a blogger, a sketch artist by hobby, and a lawyer.  His blog Boringbug is a part reflection of his ideas, experiences, dialogues, thoughts, and opinions. It can be reached at boringbug.wordpress.com

THE CHANGING NATURE OF EDUCATION

In this era of globalisation, the interdependency of nation is not restricted to the competitive paradigm of international trade and commerce. It has far reaching impact on the regional, national and intra national diversity of a country, which includes rapid demographic, social, and economic change. Its influence can be perceived from the constantly evolving social norms, and the concept of education is no different to this change.

Education viz. knowing the knowable’ is a vital part of our existence. It determines our efficiency, response and conduct towards a country’s resources. The better the quality, the higher moral resource of a country is determined. Hence, the quality of education system determines the bonafide personalities it is producing. The importance continues to develop in the context of changing global scenarios.

Furthermore, in the present times, the advent of globalized world has resulted into rapidly increasing socio- economic environments, inter-cultural exchanges and high-paced technological advancements. Thus resultantly broadening the horizon of education from the conventional forms of classroom education.

The purpose of education is not limited to academic pursuits or to development of professional acumen, but moralization of a man. It includes the need of a holistic system that provides with values full of compassions, ethics, and engages in the peaceful development of individuals.

Today, there are numerous means of education. Earlier classroom, teachers, and libraries were by large the only mediums of education, but with the introduction of technological platform the identity of classroom, teachers and libraries have changed. We have developed virtual realities which includes virtual mediums changing the entire educational mechanism of human kind.

The challenge today is to reduce the disparity in the educational mechanism and to deal with the concerns with respect to the growing environmental challenges, technological and philosophical threats. To make it sustainable by providing various platforms to interact and exchange ideas which will facilitate the required growth in the education sector. After all, we cannot limit ourselves by only brimming the society with literates.


Boringbug is a blogger, a sketch artist by hobby, and a lawyer. His blog can be reached at boringbug.wordpress.com.
Rakshita Mehta is a blogger who writes for the love of writing. Her blog can be reached at rakshitamehta.wordpress.com.

WHY BOOKS AND SCRIPTURES SHOULD NOT BE CENSORED?


Why books and scriptures should not be banned

Censorship is defined as a suppression or prohibition of any part of a book, film, news, idea, speech, content etc. that is considered obscene, politically & ideologically unacceptable, a threat to security, or is offensive towards a group of people. It is generally performed upon an establishment consisting of ideas, visuals, rhetoric etc. that is based upon a specific view of life. The mass burning of books, the banning of books in countries, removal of chapters etc. from course books, are some prime examples of censorship of books.

The idea of censorship on books is not a new concept. A person at the helm of power decides on a whim as to what part and content of a book should be read and what part should be censored. In recent times, it has been applied on books to avoid the adult base content being read by children, and in general to avoid political contradictions.

The argument that children if exposed to a book not suitable for their age group, would yield hampering results does not persist. In my view, if anyone wants to know about suitability of books for children, generally the synopsis and reviews provide plenty of clues. As far as a child is concerned, he might have difficulty interpreting the heavy content of a book which is beyond his comprehensive ability. In fact, if he is able to comprehend, then age is merely a number for the child. The only factor separating the child from the objectionable content is good guidance and mentoring. After all, he may not be able to absorb the content as deep as he might while watching a visual.

The above analogy can be rebutted on psychological aspect. It is an established fact that what is read is more difficult to visualise than what is seen. In Spinozian sense, you cannot visualise or imagine anything that is not present in nature and is not seen before. (natura naturata). We respond and learn faster from visuals rather than from reading. Hence this justifies why there is a censor board for visuals or movies.

I would rather clarify that I am talking about censoring of books/ novels/ scriptures etc. (written material) in layman term. Everyone is entitled to their own opinion that includes the censoring authorities in their political mindset.

Coming back to why books and/or scriptures should not be censored? The censor board is for visuals which are telecasted all over a state; at the very least, novels are not televised. Unless they are books with visuals, such as a manga or comic books, people will remain benevolent towards the aspect of reading and will not imagine absurd graphics. Since they would not know how it came to be! However, this idea is again questionable, since humans cannot escape their nature and their natural tendencies.

I say that after a certain point humans are bound to learn certain things. Censoring the same in the name of absurdities such as sin would result in the collapse of a society. While visuals show it, books portray it. Reading brings maturity and clarity of thought. This is because we need to read enough to augment rational thoughts. Irrespective of the genre, reading helps us develop logical reasoning. Reading a book and censoring the politically explicit part would be a resultant breach of one’s personal right.

I am of a profound opinion that there should not be any censorship or limitation on books. After all, a person sitting on a chair cannot determine as to what one should and should not read. Information is power; to allow those already in power to censor the opinions of those who disagree with their views is unhealthy and potentially dangerous. We cannot judge and censor an opinion on the mere connotation that it is contrary to our belief.


Boringbug is a blogger, a sketch artist by hobby and a lawyer. His website is a part reflection of his ideas, experiences, dialogues, thoughts and opinions. It can be reached here at boringbug.wordpress.com.